Daftar Persamaan Alat Sepeda Motor

Saya akan mencoba membantu menuliskan beberapa persamaan alat alat sepeda motor untuk memudahkan penjual dan pembeli mengetahui alternatif alat yang sedang dicari.

besar kemungkinan banyak kekurangan dengan segala keterbatasan. Untuk mendapatkan file silahkan klik link di bawah untuk berkolaborasi dengan saya. (file ditulis di google doc)

Persamaan Alat Sepeda Motor

Diskusi Umum

Setiap orang adalah pemimpin, dan setiap pemimpin akan dimintai pertanggung jawabannya.

Begitulah kurang lebih bunyi Hadits Nabi Muhammad SAW.

Setiap pemimpin punya cara pandang yang berbeda-beda, dan cara pandang itulah yang akan menentukan arah langkah kakinya, keputusan-keputusannya dsb.

Sebagai seorang muslim, sudahkah kita tahu Bagaimana Islamic Worlview dari sebuah kepemimpinan?

Mari, datang dan belajar bersama
ISFI pada;

Hari: Jum’at
Tanggal: 5 January 2018
Waktu: 17.00 s/d Selesai
Topik: Membangun Kepemimpinan berbasis Islamic worldview, ilmu adab dan peradaban fadhilah.
Pemateri: Ir. H. Achmad Aprayoga Nurhono Msc.

Seorang Insinyur yang saat ini sedang bekerja sebagai salah satu senior di Perusahaan Minyak Malaysia (Petronas) itu berlatar belakang PII (Pelajar Islam Indonesia). Meski bidang yang digutinya bukan bidang agama, tapi Islamic Worldview yang beliau miliki tidak diragukan lagi.

Membahas Islamic Worldview bersama seorang ahli Geophysicist pasti akan sangat menarik.

Sekali lagi, mari belajar bersama, disela-sela kejenuhan materi ujian yang banyak itu 🙂

Agama Yahudi

Dari tiga agama langit, jumlah pemeluk agama yahudi adalah yang terkecil. Semestinya, jumlah pemeluk agama yahudi adalah yang terbesar jika dinilai dari urutan permulaan (yahudi, kristen dan islam).

Faktor “manusia pilihan” adalah jawabnya. Mereka sangat bangga dan mempertahankan konsep ini. Sehingga, mereka tidak menyeru ras dan bangsa lain utk memeluk agama yahudi.

Karenanya, apabila mereka mengajak ras dan bangsa lain kepada agama yahudi maka konsep “manusia pilihan” adalah batal.

Cosmology and Mythology

Introduction

This work is submitted as assignment of subject Myth and Religion. The work is composed of several common discussions pertaining the cosmology: what it is and why is it regarded as myth?  In order to perform the exploratory on cosmology, I used internet sources instead of books from library. Furthermore, the goal of this work is to know the development of the cosmology which I believe every society has own story rooted in interpretation of the origin of this universe from primitive interpretation to scientific interpretation. So, I am going to elaborate those interpretations in this writing.

 

The Meaning of Myth

According to Merriam Webster online dictionary, term myth is a traditional story of historical events that serves to unfold part of the world view of a people or explain a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon creation myths.[1] Traditional stories passed down through generations, claimed as true information otherwise it had the potential to give false information because sometime those stories were delivered without any scientific evidence. Additionally, stories are always different from another to another due to the limitation of sense of human.

According to Johnblack in his article posted on ancient-origins.net, the term myth is assumed from Greek word mythos, meaning “word” or “tale” or “true narrative”. Furthermore, mythos were also closely related to the word myo, meaning “to teach”, or “to initiate into the mysteries”. [2]

 

The Meaning of Cosmology

The term cosmology was mentioned in English for the first time only in 1656, in Thomas Blount’s dictionary Glossographia, where it is defined as discourse about the world, which corresponds exactly to its etymology. It was taken up again, in Latin, in the work by Christian Wolff, Cosmologia generalis (1731): “General cosmology is the science of the world or of the universe in general, to the extent that it is a composed and modifiable being”[3].

Additionally, the definition myth became limited to into fictional tales of superstition of fantasy as the age of science and philosophy began questioning the meaning of myth. thus emergence of skepticism change the meaning of word.

A scholar said in the beginning book before getting into the content of book “the less one knows about the universe, the easier it is to explain”.[4]

Last but not lease, NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), in his official website explain what the cosmology is. Cosmology is the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole. It endeavors to use the scientific method to understand the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the entire Universe. Like any field of science, cosmology involves the formation of theories or hypotheses about the universe which make specific predictions for phenomena that can be tested with observations. Depending on the outcome of the observations, the theories will need to be abandoned, revised or extended to accommodate the data. The prevailing theory about the origin and evolution of our Universe is the so-called Big Bang theory[5].

 


 

Cosmology of Ancient Civilizations

  1. Aztec

The founders of the city of Tenochtitlan, which is now Mexico City, who founded the city in about 1350 C.E. are generally known as Aztecs.[6] According to Britannica.com, the origin of the Aztec people is uncertain, but elements of their own tradition suggest that they were a tribe of hunters and gatherers on the northern Mexican plateau before their appearance in Mesoamerica in perhaps the 12th century.

Creation myth of Aztec refer to the Ometecuhtli (Lord of Duality) and his female counterpart Omecihuatl (Lady of Duality) as the creators of all things and the parent of the major deities Xipe Totc (Lord of Spring), Huitzilopochtli (Sun God), Quetzalcoatl (God of Light), Tezcatlipoca (God of Darkness), and Coatlicue (Serpent Skirt Goddesses).

the The God of Light and his brother God of Darkness saw the goddesses floating in the primordial water,a s the Goddesses was destroying everything near her, so rather than they allow all destruction of creature. The God of Light and his brother God of Darkness  decided to became two gigantic serpent, they dove into the water and tore the goddesses a part. The two part of dismembered goddesses became our world- one part the earth and the other sky.[7]

  1. Batak

Group of Batak is from northern Sumatra of Indonesia, they are also known as music and dance lover.  They claimed as descendant of divine sources.

Shortly, the first God was Mula Jadi ma Bolon. He took form ex nihilo (out of nothing) as trinity embodying the upper, middle, and lower world. The trinity was depicted as a world tree as axis mundi or world center that linked three parts of cosmos. A bird in this world tree lay eggs, out of which emerged still another trinity charged with governing three worlds. Batara Guru would govern the upper world, Soripada the middle world, and Mangalabulan the lower world.[8]

the creation of the first twin human being toke story the marriage between Sorbayati and Raja Odap Odap. Those twin sibling, Si Raja Ihat Manisia and Si Boru Ihat Manisia. Among thei many children was Si Raja Batak, the first of the Batak People.[9]

 

  1. Dayak (Dyak)

Borneo (Kalimanta in modern Indonesia) brings out a lot of stories. Dayak tribe is the indigenous people of this island. Most of them inhabited in southern and western Borneo.

There are several different myths about the creation within Dayak tribes I recorded in my reading, one of them Ngaju Dayak. They say the world was created by high God out of sun and moon. The god gave people this land as temporary place to live. The world was floated on water on the back of water snake that is synonym to Tree of life. [10]

 

 

Other Aspects in Cosmology

  1. Animals

We can find the similarities among 3 civilizations mentioned above. Most of them regarded the animals has the significant role in creating either as medium or as creator itself. The presence of animal in creation myth is common all parts of the civilization. such as serpent, bird, elephant, and goose toke a important part to sustain their civilization. According to David A. Leeming in his book, animals are created before human then continue creation.[11]

  1. Axis Mundi

            Axis mundi in the certain civilizations is always symbolized with “world tree” as the center of the world that connects between upper, middle and lower world. Furthermore, other civilizations use other objects as axis mundi like mountain Fuji in Japan and Mandala circle in India.

Axis mundi is regarded as sacred places for its people. Sometimes, they make altar to perform prayer around axis mundi. So, the axis mundi became the medium to communicate to the upper world (heaven) for asking the guidance or anything in accordance with their intention.

 

 


 

Conclusion

            To conclude the exploratory that I conducted, I found that there are a lot of myths all over the world, one of the central myth is relating to the cosmology or the creation. Both primitive and modern societies endeavor to explain how everything started and continue to generations Furthermore, what I learnt each civilization and society has their own concept of creation but still there are similarities such as the idea of axis mundi. But we can not generalize the idea of axis mundi to other societies because every society has different interpretation of axis mundi.

Pre modern societies actually endeavor to explain how this universe works upon the limitation of technology and knowledge. In other hand, Modern societies where we are living now put forward the skepticism over the concept of cosmology developed by people inhabited some places. According to science, everything without rational evidence does not exist.

Lastly, the idea of beginning of creation already existed at the moment people thinking how human comes to this world? What is beyond of this world? And who has managed this world in such a way?


 

References

David A. Leeming Ph.D. Creation Myths of the World  2 volumes  – 2nd edition (2009).

Helge K. Cosmology and Controversy The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe. Princeton University Press (1996)

Jean Pierre L. The Wraparound Universe. AK Peters, Ltd. (2008).

Lindsay, J. Encyclopedia of religion 2nd edition. Thomson Gale.

Mircea, E. Cosmos and History, The Myth of the Eternal Return. Harper Torchbook.

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/myth?utm_campaign=sd&utm_medium=serp&utm_source=jsonld.  Retrieved 18 November 2017.

https://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/.  Retrieved 16th of November 2017.

 

[1] https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/myth?utm_campaign=sd&utm_medium=serp&utm_source=jsonld , accessed 18 November 2017.

[2] http://www.ancient-origins.net/human-origins/meaning-word-myth-0061, accessed 18 November 2017.

[3] Jean-Pierre Luminet, The Wraparound Universe, AK Peters, Ltd. (2008) .

[4] Helge Kragh. Cosmology and Controversy_ The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe, Princeton University Press (1996)

[5] https://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/, accessed 16th of November 2017.

[6] David A. Leeming Ph.D.-Creation Myths of the World  2 volumes  – 2nd edition (2009).

[7] Ibid.

[8] Ibid.

[9] David A. Leeming Ph.D.-Creation Myths of the World  2 volumes  – 2nd edition (2009).

[10] Ibid.

[11] David A. Leeming Ph.D.-Creation Myths of the World  2 volumes  – 2nd edition (2009).

 

Methodology of Ahmad Hijazy on the Study of Christianity and Jewish

The issue of Bible and Torah authenticity is one of the main topics of Christian-Judaism & Islamic debates besides the question of Jesus’ deity. There are discussion and analyses conducted to proof the corruptions of the Gospel by Muslim scholar.

Ahmad Hijazy al-Saqqa was one of important Muslim scholars who devoted entire of his life to give contribution on the study of religion other than Islam. His sincerity toward this field of study was illustrated through his educational background. He had many writings that argued  against the fundamental belief both of Christianity and Jewish. Doing analysis on the scripture has its difficulty. In order to construct our  analysis regarding Ahmad Hijazy in his writing we find that he has the tendency to use methodology of disputative.

  1. Disputative on Bible

In the scripture of Christianity, Ahmad Hijazy employed disputative methodology in his writing, Page 213 of book al-adillah al-kitabiyyah ‘ala fasad al-yahudiyyah wa al-nashraniyyah in particular.[1] It is told that in John: 6  6-15 Jesus feeds the five thousand[2]

1 Sometime after this, Jesus crossed to the far shore of the Sea of Galilee (that is, the Sea of Tiberias),

2 and a great crowd of people followed him because they saw the signs he had performed by healing the sick.

3 Then Jesus went up on a mountainside and sat down with his disciples.

4 The Jewish Passover Festival was near.

5 When Jesus looked up and saw a great crowd coming toward him, he said to Philip, “Where shall we buy bread for these people to eat?”

6 He asked this only to test him, for he already had in mind what he was going to do.

7 Philip answered him, “It would take more than half a year’s wages[a] to buy enough bread for each one to have a bite!”

8 Another of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, spoke up, 9 “Here is a boy with five small barley loaves and two small fish, but how far will they go among so many?”

10 Jesus said, “Have the people sit down.” There was plenty of grass in that place, and they sat down (about five thousand men were there).

11 Jesus then took the loaves, gave thanks, and distributed to those who were seated as much as they wanted. He did the same with the fish.

12 When they had all had enough to eat, he said to his disciples, “Gather the pieces that are left over. Let nothing be wasted.”

13 So they gathered them and filled twelve baskets with the pieces of the five barley loaves left over by those who had eaten.

14 After the people saw the sign Jesus performed, they began to say, “Surely this is the Prophet who is to come into the world.”

15 Jesus, knowing that they intended to come and make him king by force, withdrew again to a mountain by himself.

 

Ahmad Hijazy highlighted  in this phenomenon that when crowd of people saw the miracle of feeding five thousand people  or the miracle in little blessed food they said “Surely this is the Prophet who is to come into the world” since that they assumed Jesus was the promised messiah on book Deuteronomy:18.

Ahmad Hijazy argued that when Jesus went up to mountainside to tell the Israeli that Jesus was not the messiah they are waiting for as written on book Deuteronomy: 18 but that is Muhammad SAW. This told that the messiah is not coming before prophet Isa. Since the sign of the coming prophet should be king and obeyed leader.

  1. Disputative on Torah

Torah is compilation from several sources different streams of literary traditions that was composed and collected over the course of the biblical period (ca. 1200 B.C.E. to ca. 400 B.C.E.). In this perspective, is an amalgam of the works of different authors or schools, it contains an abundance of factual inconsistencies; contradictory regulations; and differences in style, vocabulary, and even theology. However, Torah is the most comprehensive scripture in the history of Israelite that consist of law for its people.

According to Ahmad Hijazy in his book entitled naqd taurah (Criticism of the Torah) on page 230, he gave the illustration on how Torah being corrupted. As he quoted from Torah:

قال كاتب التورة: إن الله خلق آدم بعدما خلق السموات والأرض، وخلق حواء. زغرس الرب جنة ووضع فيها آدم هو وحواء ثم خلق الله كل الحيوانات وكل الطيور، واحضرها إلى آدم ليري ماذا يدعوها؟ وكل ما دعا به آدم ذات نفس حية فهو اسمها. فدعا آدم بأسماء جميع البهائم وجميع حيوانات البرية.

وقال الكاتب: إن الله خلق حواء من ضلع من اضلاع آدم وهو نائم. وإن الله أوصى آدمم وحواء بان لا يأكلا من الشجرة لئلا يهلكا. و أنهما عصيا الأمر و لما عصيا. قال لآدم: لأنك سمعت لقول امرأتك وأكلت من الشجرة التي اوصيت قائلا: لا تأكل منها: ملعونة الأرض بسببك. بالتعب تأكل منها، كل ايام حياتك، وشوكا وحسكا تنبت لك عشب الحقل. بعرق وجهك تأكل خبزا، حتى تعود إلى الأرض التي أخذت منها، لأنك تراب وإلى تراب تعود.

Ahmad Hijzay look up and saw the exclusion word “devil” from what Jewish scholar write on Torah of Moses, instead its role in provoking Eve and Adam to eat that fruit. Why? Ahmad Hijazy argued that the exclusion of word “devil” is not accidental. Because the writers of Torah have such a meeting before they were going to write the scripture.[3] Ahmad Hijazy wrote confidently on book naqd taurah page 232 that there must be rationale cause.[4] As we know that during that time Israelite was several time under the oppression of Tyrant Empire and was exiled from their land, Kan’an. So, we can assume that purpose of this kind exclusion was to establish the mentality of people of Israelite to be daredevil people or not afraid from any oppression.

[1] Ahmad hijazy, al-adillah al-kitabiyyah ‘ala fasad al-nasraniyyah wa al-yahudiyyah, dar al-fadhillah.

[2] Feeding five thousand.  https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=John+6

[3] Ahma Hijazy, Naqd Taurah, dar al-jayl, Beirut. P. 232

Sepakat Berbeda; Mungkinkah?

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(Kuala Lumpur, 10/8/2017) – Mahasiswa Indonesia yang memilih menetap di kampus IIUM beramai-ramai memadati ruangan ADM LT 1 IIUM. Dialog antar ormas islam yang ada di IIUM dalam rangka Halal bi Halal dan memperingati hari kemerdekaan republik Indonesia.

Dialog ini diselenggarakan oleh ISFI (Islamic Studies Forum for Indonesia). Dan Putri Silaturahmi, mahasiswi S2 jurusan ilmu sociologi adalah ketua panitia berhasil mengawal terlaksananya acara.

Ormas-ormas tersebut adalah PCI IMM Malaysia, KMNU Malaysia, PERSIS, dan FOTAR.

Menurut Rajiv, dialog seperti ini belum pernah ada sebelumnya di kampus IIUM.

Pembicara dari masing masing ormas mampu membuat semua peserta yang tidak kurang dari 50 orang tersebut menyimak hingga azan maghrib berkumandang.

Dialog direncanakan mulai setelah sholat ashar (pukul 17.00), sempat terkendala hingga pukul 17.45 dikarenakan hujan lebat mengguyur kampus.

Dr. Muntaha Artalim Zaim, pembimbing ISFI dalam sambutannya menyambut baik terwujudnya acara ini. Indonesia ini sangat besar, kalau Muhammadiyah saja yang mengelola indonesia mungkin akan kewalahan.

Muasal Novel “Tenggelamnya Kapal Van Der Wijk”

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Gambar diatas adalah rumah keluarga Ibu Robi’ah istri pertama pak Zainuddin Fanani dia anak bangsawan Minang maklum beliau Salah satu Tri murti yg paling ganteng . Kisah Cintanya sangat berliku maklum adat minang zaman itu masih kuat
kawin antar suku sangat tabu.

Rumah itu di Payakumbuh. Waktu saya datangi, di dalam rumah itu masih tergantung foto2 pernikahan Pak Fanani. Yg tentu saja didampingi Pak Zar.. Bisa dibayangkan, menikah di tanah perantauan dengan hanya diantar adik saja sebagai wakil keluarga…
Di suatu pagi di kota Padang, seperti biasa di rumah pasangan muda itu telah tersaji secangkir kopi panas dan sebuah lipatan koran yg baru diantar….
Namun saat membuka halaman pertama, lelaki muda itu sontak terkejut dan termangu. Seolah tak percaya berita yg menjadi tajuk utama koran pagi itu. Ya, koran itu memberitakan tenggelam nya Kapal Van Der Wijk. Kapal yg baru beberapa pekan lalu dinaiki adiknya pulang ke jawa, dan ia bersama kawan dekatnya ikut mengantar ke pelabuhan teluk bayur..
Ia mendesah dengan nafas dalam tak tahu apa yg harus dilakukan.. Ia hanya membayangkan sosok adik yg sangat dicintainya itu ikut tenggelam, yg berarti tenggelam pula sebagian cita cita keluarga untuk menjadi bagian dari perjuangan besar bangsa ini….

Termangu dan tak berkutik, hingga membuat kawannya yg biasa datang pagi itu ter heran heran. “Ada apa gerangan..?” Pikirnya dalam hati. Sebagai seorang junior, kawannya ini pun ragu menanyakan perihal apa yg sedang menimpa sahabat baiknya ini. Ia pun hanya bisa melihat lihat dan mencoba menerka apa yg terjadi..

Lelaki yg sedang termangu memegang koran itu adalah Zainuddin. Dan kawannya yg datang itu tak lain adalah Hamka. Dua sobat seperjuangan ini memang sangat kental.

Saat Hamka melirik ke bawah, terlihat tulisan besar di headline koran itu; berita tentang tenggelam nya Kapal Van Der Wijk..
Kali ini Hamka ikut menghela nafas dalam. Ia faham kini mengapa Zainuddin sepertinya kaku membisu bagai sedang disamber petir.. Hamka juga ikut mengantar Zarkasyi ke teluk bayur saat itu. Pastilah Hamka juga ikut merasakan apa yg dirasakan Zainuddin.

Namun dengan kepala dingin, Hamka memungut koran itu dan membacanya secara perlahan; kata demi kata..

Sesaat kemudian Hamka dengan wajah cerah berusaha menenangkan sahabatnya itu.
“Kakanda.. Sepertinya adinda Zarkasyi selamat dari musibah ini..” Kata Hamka dengan senyum yg setengah dipaksa kan.
“Hah.., bagaimana kau tahu..?” Tanya Zainuddin yg rupanya baru teraadar ada kawan dekatnya yg datang.
“Lihat, Kapal ini tenggelam dalam perjalanannya dari Tanjung perak menuju teluk bayur. Sementara adinda Zarkasyi naik Kapal ini dengan tujuan Tanjung perak..”
“Coba berikan koran itu padaku…” Kata Zainuddin menyerigai..

Setelah membaca dengan seksama, ia pun berpikir kembali dan berkata;
“Seharusnya telegram atau kartu pos dari Zarkasyi sudah saya terima jika is sudah sampai Surabaya. Tapi sampai saat ini belum ada telegram maupun kartu pos yg datang…”

Hamka punya ide untuk menyelesaikan keraguan kawannya ini. Ia mengajak ke kantor telepon untuk menghubungi redaksi koran itu untuk dapat konfirmasi dari wartawannya yg di jawa…
Sementara itu di tempat terpisah, di pelabuhan Tanjung perak Surabaya…

Seorang muda dengan koper kulit yg lusuh terlihat turun dari tangga Kapal. Ia adalah Zarkasyi yg baru pulang dari perantauan panjangnya di tanah seberang, tanah Minang.. Ia begitu bersemangat mendarat di kota yg sangat nostalgik baginya. Di kota inilah lahir cita cita para abang nya untuk membuat lembaga pendidikan modern. Karena di kota inilah 10 tahu yg lalu abangnya, Ahmad Sahal ikut konferensi ulama dan bertemu KH Wahab Hasbullah, yg dari pertemuannya ini kemudian lahir tekad untuk mendirikan lembaga pendidikan tadi. Ia pun tak tahan untuk sekedar melihat lihat kota terbesar di Jatim itu untuk sekedar menelisik jejak perjuangan abangnya itu. Setelah puas mengelilingi kota Surabaya, ia pun kembali harus berjuang menuju kampung halamannya yg sudah begitu lama ia tinggal.. Perjalanan Surabaya Gontor untuk waktu itu bukan lah persoalan yg mudah. Ia harus berganti banyak kendaraan dari satu kota ke kota lainnya untuk sampai tempat tujuan.. Setelah dua hari menempuh perjalanan pulang, ada sesuatu yg ia lupa. Ya, seharusnya saat masih di Surabaya ia kirim telegram atau kartu pos ke abangnya di Padang seperti janjinya saat menaiki Kapal di teluk bayur. Saat itu ia sudah di kota madiun. Selagi ingat, Zarkasyi pun bergegas menuju kantor pos di dekat alun alun madiun sebelum menuju desa kelahirannya yg sudah sangat ia rindukan….
Kembali ke Padang..

Saat dua sahabat itu bersiap keluar ingin menuju kantor pos atau kantor telepon, tiba tiba ada tukang pos datang membawa telegram. Ditujukan untuk kakanda Zainuddin.
Zainuddin langsung menyambar telegram yg sebenarnya hanya berisi beberapa kata saja. Namun penting maknanya bagi dia. Dia buka telegram itu dan dia baca;
Alhamdulillah adinda telah tiba. Selamat. Maaf. Baru bisa kirim dari madiun.
Ttd.
Zarkasyi.

Kali ini Zaenuddin sangat lega. Ia menengadahkan wajahnya ke langit sambil menggemggam telegram itu di dadanya.

“Kita tidak jadi pergi..” Kata Zaenuddin kepada kawannya. Ia kembali masuk rumah dan diikuti kawannya. Koran yg sempat membuatnya kaget tadi, dipakai untuk alas sujud syukur… Hamka termangu ikut terharu memandangi wajah kawannya yg penuh syukur itu..
Terlintas kemudian di benak Hamka untuk menulis sebuah roman berjudul “Tenggelamnya Kapal Van Der Wijk” dengan tokoh utama bernama Zaenuddin….

(sumber: Group WhatsApp IKPM Malaysia)